In this section the author will analyse the different shades of dark tourism and analyse the shade and signification of Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum. In part of literature review, the author already has given out two main justifications for them, they are: memorial places and sign of the ugly side of war on terrorism. In this section, the author will have an in depth analysis these issues.
Firstly, in previons section it is seen that dark exhibitions should be full of education, so the educational aspect will be looked at first. As people known, grief will damage the physical and mental health of human, and they should pay more attention on social activities, past memorises and get a vision for the future (Parkes 2002). Base on this theory, Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum they record the grief of 9/11 terrorism attacks, but the new building of museum and rebuild the World Trade Center is a sign for people to remember the people who died in the attacks (memories of the past) and meet the new life (vision for the future), thus the Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum confirm Parkers’s (2002) point of view, telling people vividly about history and grief, thus these two places are not just places for people to remember, but also a sign for people to start a new life.
In addition, in government website of 9/11 Memorial Museum they cooperated with New York City Department of Education and the New Jersey Commission on Holocaust Education (2011) to make teaching plans to offer useful educational programs to offer information and knowledge about the events of 9/11, history of attacks, and the post – 9/11 world. Meanwhile, they also help people who have lost people in the terrorism attacks out of the pain and grief. The government website said they received many parents message that they do not know how to teach their children the history about 9/11 and what happened in the 9/11 terrorism attacks, in this way the 9/11 Memorial Museum offer a plan on their website to all parents, on how to tell the true history of 9/11 event to their children, and this information is all free. The objective is to face up to the history is necessary for the people, and everybody has a right to understand the history, thus the teaching and learning plans of 9/11 Memorial Museum offer an effective way for people to understand their history. From these, the 9/11 Memorial Museum provided a wealth of information is telling visitors the dangers of terrorism, stay away from terrorism, against terrorism and peace – loving, has a strong role in education.
There is another reason for people to understand the real terrorism attacks in the museum that is museum cooperation with StoryCorps to record the terrorist attacks of 26/02/1993 and 11/09/2001, which include the narratives from survivors, rescue workers, witnesses, service providers and other people impacted by these events, therefore the museum tries to restore the historical truth (9/11 Memorial Museum website). Rogers and Soyka (2004) suggest through an interview, that a survivor’s description, recording and voices from the scene, and pictures of the scene, are the best ways to show a true picture of 9/11. Based on these the Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum tells the real history which expands range of educational activities. Above mentioned which not only shows education function of the 9/11 Memorial Museum, but also expression the social function, that is restore the true history to people.
Through education, they hope to publicise the harmfulness of terrorism. The other major significance of the Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum is tell people how terrible terrorism is and how human will always oppose terrorism (Espiritu and Moore 2008). Based on the voice of survivors which is on exhibition in 9/11Memorial Museum, reveals the dread, alarm, helplessness, hopelessness and pain when the attacks happened (Miller 2011). Ground Zero is rebuilding on the site of the World Trade Center, and when people pass the site, they can see the ruins, which shows the destructive effect of terrorism. Meanwhile, the pictures in the 9/11 Memorial Museum show the whole history of 9/11 and pass 9/11, it tells visitors the true ugly features of terrorism and how beautiful peace is, and the visitor will be shocked through these pictures ( Bohland 2004). To view the various of all kinds of pictures, and hear the voices in the 9/11 Memorial Museum, as well as the ruins of the World Trade Center, both show people the danger, destructive and terrible side of terrorism.
In addition, apart from except the above section, one of the major significance of Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum is to provide a venue for people around the world to remember the 9/11, as well as to commemorate the people killed in this terrorism attack. After 9/11 in 2001, many visitors that go to the World Trade Center site have visited to grieve over the deaths. Especially in 9/11 2011, the ten years of 9/11 terrorism attacks, have seem the American people hold comment that memorial activities in the World Trade Center site. BBC News (2011) on that day many people went into the World Trade Center in New York, the Pentagon and Pennsylvania to honour the victims. On September 10, former US president George – W – Bush laid a wreath to honour the victims and on September 8, there were two lights piercing the horizon from the World Trade Center site to honour the tenth anniversary after the terrorism attacks. The 9/11 Memorial Museum was opened on that day (9/11 Memorial Museum website and NY1 news, 2011). The main 9/11 Memorial Museum chose to open on the tenth anniversary to honour 9/11 attack. That day, it opened for victims’ family and was opened to the public on 12/09/2011. Because many people go to Ground Zero to honour victims, in order to reduce the traffic, as well as not to affect construction work around Ground Zero, thus the government built the 9/11 Memorial Museum. Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum are centres of the people to remember the 9/11 terrorist attacks events.
Another significance is the sign for the war on terrorism, as mentioned in the literature review. After the 9/11 terrorist attacks, the American government published policies against terrorist, and the World Trade Center was seen as the centre of the terrorist attacks, thus the new construction on the site of the World Trade Center has become one of the important symbol of the U.S. government anti – terrorism (Melnick 2009).
Education, restore true history, shows terrible of terrorism and sign of war on terrorism are major significations related to these two sites. Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum play a very important role on the fight against terrorism, and full of social function (education people, restore history) and service function (provide the pictures, videos, voice to people and provide places for people to remember)
Based on the significations and the shade of dark tourism mentioned in the literature review, in the next section the author will use the table 1 to analysis the shade of the Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum.
4.2-2 Shade of Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum
Referring to the literature review, Miles (2002) writes that authors should understand distinction between “sites associated with death and suffering”, and “sites of death and suffering”. Based on this theory, Stone (2006) gives an example of Auschwitz – Birkenau as a “site of death and suffering”, but the US Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington DC is belong to “sites associated with death and suffering”. Because the Auschwitz – Birkenau is the direct place that the Nazi imprison and massacre the people, however, the US Holocaust Memorial Museum is a museum to memorial the massacre, it is a place to memorial the events, thus the shade of the Auschwitz – Birkenau isdarker than the US Holocaust Memorial Museum. In Stone’s (2006) paper, he suggests that,
“â€¦recent death and tragic events that may be transported in live memory through survivors or witnesses are perhaps ‘darker’ than other events that have descended into the distant past”
Because of this, those dark events like the Auschwitz – Birkenau and the Ground Zero which can be described as “darker” because of them can be proved by the survival and living the place could arouse a greater sense of empathy (Stone, 2006). As the above theories, the author considered the Ground Zero can be classified in “darker” and the 9/11 Memorial Museum is lighter than former, could be describe as “dark”. In the following part, the author will use table to analysis more details to explain why the Ground Zero is belong to “darker” and 9/11 Memorial Museum is “dark”
Analysis through the table 1 from top to bottom, the first one is about “polities”. As known after 9/11 terrorism attacks events, American government implementation of a series of anti – terrorism policies, and the strength is more strong than before the 9/11 events. The main and official aim is to exterminate al – Qaeda and other terrorist organizations. In 2002, the Bush administration will be the definition of “state terrorism” as the primary threat in the United States, and replace religious terrorism and defined Iraq and Iran as the main terrorism base because who have weapons of mass destruction (CNN U.S. 2002). Followed by March 2003, U.S. government sent troop to Iraq and announces the Iraq was a part of war on terrorism, it opened the prelude of the war on terrorism, and in April 2003 the Baghdad the capital of Iraq was fell and the government of Saddam Hussein was dissolved. After 9/11 events, former American President Bush, G. W. operation with former President of Pakistan to against the Taliban government in Afghanistan (USA Today News, 2006). In 2005, American government to amend the anti – terrorism policy, and requalification terrorism objects, from original single al – Qaeda expanded to more than 20 organisations (Argomaniz, 2010). Meanwhile, American government established Homeland Security Department to build a safer and more powerful structure of the Homeland Security Department (Department of Homeland Security website). This series of policy changes is the 9/11 events brought to American government, also caused changes in government policy. Based on table 1, it shows if the site has a higher political influence it will be trend to darker, thus Ground Zero as the events center it should be belong to “darker”. However, the 9/11 Memorial Museum as a new building to remember the people death in 9/11 it not influence the polities, but why it is also classified in the “darker” or “dark”, it can not just analysis one aspect, it will be explain from other element of table 1.
The next element will be analysed is education orientation. At the first of this part the author already mentioned the signification of Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum, it include full content of education. Based on above information, Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum are have high education for people, and the 9/11 Memorial Museum also offer many useful action to show the educational significance to visitors, and some project in museum could help the parents to teach their children, this is also played a significant role in the education of next generation. On this element, Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum are have a very strong education role, thus them should be part of “darker”.
From history aspect, Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum both are record the history. In the table 1, it say of the sites are trend to darkest which should be the history centric and conservation of commemorative. As know, Ground Zero is build in the site of the World Trade Center, the new building is witness of this history of 9/11 events and 9/11 Memorial Museum collected many pictures, voices, stories and videos about that events, it the best save of that events, shows real history and also can restore the truth history for future generations. In term of commemorative, the author already gives out many factors to proved Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum full of memorable. It is worth mentioning that based on the 9/11 Memorial Museum website the purpose and mission is better remember and memorial people who death in 9/11 attacks. Consequently, there is no doubt that these two places’ main function is memory. In this regard, they also trend to be “darker”.
There is another side also can prove Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum are pertain to “darker”. Based on shade of dark tourism, if product include perceived authentic it could be belong to “darker”. Although, Ground Zero is building in the site of the World Trade Center, the new building will recover the site, but the face of terrorist attacks at this site will not be changed and many memorial activates in here could engender a degree empathy to visitors. The products in 9/11 Memorial Museum are the directly materials which related to the terrorist attacks, such as pictures of the scene of terrorist attacks, video recording of the World Trade Center which was attacked., photos of victims and people can share the story about 9/11 attacks, all of these are let people feel very directly of destructive of 9/11 attacks. These products of 9/11 Memorial Museum can make a strong resonance for visitors. Direct show 9/11 and make visitors feel a real 9/11 are the feature of products in Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum.
In the table 1, it mentioned the location authenticity. In this paper the author has been mentioned many times that Ground Zero is build in the site of the World Trade Center and the 9/11 Memorial Museum is near by the attacks site, in terms of location these two place are very close to terrorist attacks.
The last one is tourism infrastructure and supply. The infrastructure is defined as basic facility and physical for an organization needed for operation or service to match the function and aim (Jeffrey, 2009). After Ground Zero build, it will be use as business it must include many high level and complete facilities and infrastructure for people, in the 9/11 Memorial Museum, in order to provide a good service to visitors the museum also use many high – tech infrastructure. Concerned to supple of 9/11 Memorial Museum, the purpose is very clear, that is to remember the 9/11 terrorist attacks, as well as the victims. Based on these two aspects and table 1, Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum they are not trend to “darker”. However, consider the issued should from different perspective to analysis and then conclude. Based on analysis from above, in the vast majority of aspects the shade of Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum are trend to “darker” side, thus the author consider Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum are belong to “darker” in the shade of dark tourism.
4.2 – 3 Conclusion
In this section, the author give out more details about the signification, shown that Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum are full of memorable and historical dark tourism sites. It also a major symbol of the war on terror. Especially the 9/11 Memorial Museum, is very suitable for school and parents to educate the children abut the 9/11 attacks, and make them know how horrible the terrorism is, at the same time is the best place to memorial victims. Understand the shade could help the author depth understand Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum as a multifaceted and complex tourism products. Based on Stone’s (2006) point, dark not means “bad”, the darker is closer to the actual event. In Stone (2006) paper says Auschwitz – Birkenau can be described as “darker”. In this case study, the author based on elements of table 1 (the shade of dark tourism) to analysis Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum form many aspect and concluded Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum are trend to “darker” that is rigorous and theoretical basis. Understanding of nature of Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum, enables the author better analysis the strategies which Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum they used in operations, and help the 9/11 Memorial Museum better to achieve the goals and aim. In the next part, the author will based on these information which mentioned above and through the main strategies for Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum from 2001 to 2011 to depth analysis details about strategies of Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum.
4.3 Strategies of Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum
4.3 – 1 Differentiation strategy
In this section, the author will analysis the strategies of Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum. In the table 2, the author summarized the main strategies which used during 2001 to 2011, from the table it shows the main strategies of these two places is rebuild and build a new building to memory which decided by American and New York government. In 2001, after 9/11 attacks, American government decided to rebuild the World Trade Center at the site and quickly began to implement this plan, in same year announced the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation (LMDC) as the official commission. From this, American government officially began the reconstruction of the World Trade Center. Meanwhile, in the same year, after 9/11 attacks American government published some anti – terrorist policies, this mean America declared war on terror, and rebuild the World Trade Center is also a reflection of the war on terrorism. The strategy of rebuild the World Trade Center is not only to memory the 9/11 attacks, to revive the confidence of Americans, it is also a reflection of terrorism by the American government (Melnick, 2010). During these ten years, the other main construction strategy is build the 9/11 Memorial Museum. In 2004 the official commission Lower Manhattan Development Corporation decisions design the museum and in 2005 design the mission of museum. Determine of mission is also determine the characteristically of the 9/11 Memorial Museum. Based on the 9/11 Memorial Museum website the museum has two main mission. The first is remembered and honor the victims by terrorists in the horrific attacks of February 26, 1993 and September 11, 2001 and this is a very important main mission of the 9/11 Memorial Museum. The second is respect this place made sacred through tragic loss. Based on the mission, it caused the author chose differentiation and cost leadership strategies to develop the 9/11 Memorial Museum which was mentioned in the literature review. In September 11, 2011, the ten anniversary of 9/11 the 9/11 Memorial Museum was opened for victims’ families and September 12, 2011 opened for public for memorial and the museum will open in 2013 (Cohen, 2012).
These strategies are specific actions of American and New York government, the author considered that need more professional strategy framework to analysis the Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum and give out more details. Because Ground Zero will be as a business center in the future (Watts, 2009) and the memorial function is a part of it, thus in this section the author will pay more attention on strategies of the 9/11 Memorial Museum.
Based on the mission and Porter’s framework (Evans et, al. 2003 refer Porter, 1985) the author chose two strategies to develop the 9/11 Memorial Museum. The first one is differentiation. Evans et, al (2003) point that the main benefits for differentiation strategy are the following four aspect. The first is the products will be sale by a premium price, because the product is different from others, thus the product could be as an advantage for the organisation and the price will add more value. The second benefit is “demand for its product will be less price elastic than demand for competitors’ products”, that means the product is in a class by the organisation, the organisation could decide the elastic of price by themselves. The next is average profits can be earned. And the last one is can create good environment for entry the industry and new market. Distinctive product could help the organisation attracts more customer if the product meet the customer’s needs, and can be occupy dominant position in the competitive. Meanwhile, Evans et, al (2003) also give out the some suggestions for organisations to help them how to achieve a successful differentiation strategy. There are five ways. The first way is creating a superior product than competitors’, which is means the product will be excellent in the industry. Then is offer a superior level of service, the quality and characteristics of the product is important, but it is also very important for services, that include pre – sale service, the services of sale, as well as after – sales services. The third is the organisation should have a superior distribution channels, a good distribution channels could make the orgainsation occupy a better network and branches and will take more newcomer. The next one is creating a strong brand image, the status of the brand image in customer’s mind is increasingly important. In the same price, or a little bit of price difference, customers often choose the product which has a good brand image. The last one is offer a superior promotion, based on Evans et, al (2003) a successful promotion could give a very deep impression for customers, when they wants to buy similar products, their mind will think of the organisation’s products first and the choice of customers will take precedence.
In this case study, as the Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum are nonprofit organisation, therefore main aim of them are not earn profit, thus the author will main focus on services, brand image and promotion to analysis.
Primarily, the author will analysis the service of the 9/11 Memorial Museum. A high quality services could offer a good atmosphere to customers. In the 9/11 Memorial Museum, the organisatin should try them best to make a good environment for victims’ families and visitors memory. In this aspect, the 9/11 Memorial Museum offers many useful products for customers and also provides services for customer’s requirements. Firstly, the 9/11 Memorial Museum offers true information about terrorism attacks for visitors, it include pictures, video, stories from survival and others. In the website of the 9/11 Memorial Museum, the author found some people ask them do not know how to tell their children what is terrorism and how to tell a real 9/11 attacks for next generation, the 9/11 Memorial Museum based on visitors’ needs to offer many documents about “talk to children about 9/11”, and cooperation with the New York City Department of Education and the New Jersey Commission on Holocaust Education to offer 9/11 lessons for people and to meet the mission of the 9/11 Memorial Museum. For visitors come to the 9/11 Memorial Museum the main purpose is to memory, based on this, the 9/11 Memorial Museum hold memorial exhibition, and the exhibition provide an opportunity for visitors to learn about the men, women and children who died on September 11, 2001 and February 26, 1993, the 9/11 Memorial Museum use a corridor to show photographs of the nearly 3000 victims form a “wall of faces” who died in the terrorism attacks to visitors. Visitor can better memory the victims through this way, and the wall of faces will help visitors more intuitive understand many people died in terrorism attacks and understand the destructive of terrorism. Not all the visitors can go to the 9/11 Memorial Museum to visit, in this reason, the 9/11 Memorial Museum use google earth to explore the 9/11 memorial within the context of the surrounding landscape of lower Manhattan. This is include mapping program, creates a virtual look at the World Trade Center site, dimensionally accurate 3D model and other planned projects at the 16 – acre site. This can better meet more people’s requirements who want to memory 9/11 and victims, and also provides a good platform for visitor to know about the 9/11 and understanding terrorism.
Then is brand image, as a memorial site the brand of 9/11 Memorial Museum is different from other organisations. The 9/11 attacks is the brand of the 9/11 Memorial Museum. Refer mentioned above, the brand image could help organisation attracts more customers, but for the 9/11 Memorial Museum it not want to “attract” visitors, it want to offer a real 9/11 to visitors. Frank (2008) refers that for a museum a strong brand image can be a major asset and should position of the institutional brand, and for a new museum it can try to establish with an unusual subject. For the 9/11 Memorial Museum, it certainly exhibition an unusual show. The 9/11 Memorial Museum as a one of the most important places to memorial of the 9/11, its position is unique. Mentioned 9/11 people would think about the World Trade Center and Ground Zero, and when mentioned where to memory the people will choose Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum, in the other hands the purpose to build the 9/11 Memorial Museum is the government want to offer a dedicated place for memory. As a result the brand image of the 9/11 Memorial Museum is unique and it is a strong image in visitors mind who want to memory the victims died in 9/11 attacks. Frank (2008) also point out a good brand image can provide reinforcement of mission, operating stability and increased revenue. In this theory, the 9/11 Memorial Museum in order to meet the mission, it should keep and maintain unique brand, and through offer real information about 9/11 attacks and high level of service to improve the brand image to make more people choose the 9/11 Memorial Museum to memory and understand the 9/11 attacks.
The last one is promotion. As a memory place the main purpose it make visitors get more experiences from the 9/11 Memorial Museum. Carman (2010) points out the important thing for promotion to museum status is understand “why do people visit museums at all?” In this case study the author mentioned many times, the visitors go to Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum is in order to memory and understand the real 9/11 attacks, thus the promotion of the 9/11 Memorial Museum should based on the purpose to decided. Also based on the website of 9/11 Memorial Museum it not try to attract many visitors through promotion, it just use promotion to publicity how threatening and destructive of terrorism, and will bring huge damage for human. In this reason, the promotion for the 9/11 Memorial Museum is different from other museum, in the website the 9/11 Memorial Museum established a special column about 9/11 attacks, people could share stories in there. This special column offer a platform for survivor, victims’ families, and visitors to deep feel 9/11 attacks, in this column there are many stories shared, and it is a effective way to stimulate people go to the 9/11 Memorial Museum to visit and to know more. Wherefore, the 9/11 Memorial Museum should show some experiences to people to motive them, make more visitors come to the 9/11 Memorial Museum, and achieve the aim for make more people understand 9/11 and approach the mission.
4.3 – 2 Cost leadership strategy
Based on Evans et, al. (2003) the benefits for an organisation through strategy of cost leadership are summarised as following aspects, the first one is the organisation could earn high profits and possibility to increase both sale and market share in the industry. Then is help organization entry new market and particularly valuable in a market where customers are price sensitive. How to make this strategy successful? Refer to Evans et, al (2003) they give out some way to achieve this strategy:
reducing cost : reduce cost is a effective way to occupy more market share, because the organisation has price advantage.
using less expensive resource inputs: reduce the inputs could make organisation ensure the price advantage, eg: easyJet.
Producing products with ‘no frills’, this way could reducing labour cost and increasing labour productivity.
Achieving economies of scale by high volume sales: the high volume of sales is a good way to ensure the profits.
For the 9/11 Memorial Museum and Ground Zero, they are nonprofits organisations, but they have many partner to support them, especially for the 9/11 Memorial Museum. Through the website, the partners are including: 9/11 National Day of Service, 9/11 Tribute Center, Project Rebirth, Story Corps and Voices of September 11th. All of them are helping the 9/11 Memorial Museum to enrich content. Evans et, al (2003) refer that the definition of cost leadership is “organisation and managing its value adding activities so as to be the lowest cost producer of a product (a good or service) within an industry”
The information from the website of the 9/11 Memorial Museum, the budget for the 9/11 Memorial Museum funded by private and public funds, is $530 million, and in additional, New York State grant $80 million. A wide range of support for the government decided to build the 9/11 Memorial Museum to reduce the burden. Compare with other museums, the 9/11 Memorial Museum add and attach a lot of significance which was mentioned in the above. Special signification of historical and memorable for the 9/11 Memorial Museum makes this museum has a certain degree of competitiveness. Moreover, the 9/11 Memorial Museum provides various useful products, information and hold many activities (these are mentioned in 4.2 and 4.3 – 1) to meet visitors’ needs, all of these are make this museum as the choice to memory the 9/11 for many people.
4.3 – 3 Conclusion
The 9/11 Memorial Museum as a nonprofits organisation, strategies for it not in order to earn money, the aim for these strategies are help the 9/11 Memorial Museum achieve the aim and mission. As a place for people to memory 9/11 attacks, the 9/11 Memorial Museum should provide a very high level and quality of service to people, and ensure the visitors could take experiences from the 9/11 Memorial Museum. Miles (2002) points out
“â€¦dark tourism site must engender a degree of empathy between the sightseer and the past victim (or product)”
For the 9/11 Memorial Museum, many products are collection by primary resources, such as photographs, videotapes, voice messages, recovered property, clothing and other personal effects, workplace memorabilia, incident – specific documents, and original writings including letters, e – mails and diaries, all of them will stimulate visual sense, emotion, empathy and mood of the visitors. However, these strategies which mentioned above are useful way for the 9/11 Memorial Museum to engender empathy with visitors.
In this section, the author anaysis how the differentiation and cost leadership strategies used in the 9/11 Memorial Museum, and give out the signification and functions of these strategies. Because of these strategies, which ensure the 9/11 Memorial Museum achieve the mission and the aim, and the continuous realisation of the aim and mission ensure the 9/11 Memorial Museum has been in a position to provide people with a positive sense. In the 4.1 the author analysis the negative and positive of dark tourism, avoid the negative aspects and develop the positive aspect is very serious for a museum, in terms of the 9/11 Memorial Museum, keep the positive mission and follow the mission to decide strategies could avoid negative aspects as much as possible.
Chapter 5 Conclusion
This chapter aims to bring together and conclude the main findings and procedures of this case study.
The author uses secondary research to collect the information and data and uses theory for analysis, starting with characteristics and properties of dark tourism, Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum which include the nature, positive aspects and negative aspects, these analyse help the author achieve the objective about an evaluate dark tourism, and relate to Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum is closed to the case study.
Then specific to Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum, the chapter 4.2 analyse significance and shade of them. In this chapter the author began