Conservation and environmental protection are very important in Malaysia. Environment stabilization and maintaining to ensure that Malaysia create protection area for fauna and flora such as establishment of national parks. It is because input from natures resources are important to economic. While environmental quality on the other hand is productive asset for society.
Tropical natures are one of the important assets to tourism sector of a country. As a country with equator climate, Malaysia has unique natures and island row. Recently, Malaysia started move forward to become a developed country. Various sectors which become role model in order in development strategies for example industrial sector, agriculture and tourism. Through tourism sector, Malaysia have introduced some natural place which become focus point for tourist as their recreation place for the purpose to kill their time and for enjoyable activities for example at national park, forest reserve and islands. Therefore, Malaysia afford make tourism sector as a major source of returns if the natures beauty can be always maintained. At the same time, tourism industry has improvement and growing clearly show that Malaysia has unique attractiveness. Besides that, multi racial people with different cultural stay peace in one country make Malaysia become more unique and more attract outside tourist arrival and this is a source of profit for the country. Therefore cultural diversity and arts is key determinant in attract tourists.
Table 1.1: Number of arrival according to nationality – Sarawak
Australia and New Zealand
United Kingdom and Ireland
(Source: Immigration Department, Sarawak)
Table 1.2: Number of arrival according to state – Sarawak
(Source: Immigration Department, Sarawak)
Apart from that, infrastructure facilities is one of the factor of tourist arrival. It is because tourists will require comfort and seek solace when visit to a country. For example, many tourists who come to the Malaysia is to enjoy scenic beauty of the natures and the unique of cultural diversity. So the comfortable of accommodation such as hotel, chalet and so on as a factor to attract tourist arrival. Accommodation facility play important role cause this will be a factor to determine whether tourist will stay long or otherwise.
Sarawak is the biggest state in Malaysia which famous with rich of various ethnic groups of culture and rich in history and heritage and also known as Land of Hornbills. Sarawak not only the largest state in Malaysia, it also was the state that divide to a lot area and contain longest river in Malaysia, largest flower in the world, largest moth in the world, widen cave in the world, oldest tropical rainforest and the first person emerge in Southeast Asian available in Sarawak. This had show that Sarawak is unique and distinctive. Recreation place in Sarawak consist of natural view area and cultural centers such as Sarawak Cultural Village. Sarawak Cultural Village popular with natural beauty among local and oversea tourists.
The rich of ecology, biological and tradition in Sarawak Cultural Village really amazing. Therefore, efforts was being improved towards preserve ecology diversity, biological and tradition in Cultural Village. It is because cultural diversity and tradition of the local people able to attract a lot of tourists visit to this land of hornbills. Sarawak state indeed rich with various type of culture and ethnic such as Malay dance, Chinese and others ethnic in Sarawak which able to entertain tourist especially those tourist that like to see community life in Sarawak. Since cultural village started open to visit, so indirectly exist damage and pollution risk to the natures and beauty scene. Therefore, cultural village have to be preserve scenic beauty and traditional residence from threatened by human.
Sarawak Cultural Village Background
Sarawak Cultural Village located at Damai Beach Santubong and approximately 35km from the state capital Kuching town and dubbed as living museum in Sarawak. Sarawak Cultural Village also become a destination must be visited for those who first step to Land of Hornbills. This living museum officially opened since February 1990. This living museum consists seven hectares wide and about 150 people living in the village which include seven ethnic group namely Bidayuh, Iban, Orang Ulu, Penan, Melanau, Malay and Chinese. And each ethnic have their own lifestyle and traditional cultures for example the building of each ethnic is different, longhouse of the Iban, Bidayuh and Orang Ulu, Melanau live at tall house while Chinese is farm house. Apart from that, the entrance fees to Sarawak Cultural Village show as Table 1.3.
Table 1.3: Entrance Fees
Not Sarawak Citizen
Children (between 6-12 of age)
(Source: Sarawak Cultural Village)
Figure1.1: Sarawak Cultural Village Location
(Sumber : Malaxi Damai Beach)
Ethnic Bidayuh known as Dayak Darat achieve 8.4 percents out of total population in Sarawak. Majority ethnic Bidayug stay in long house that located nearby slope of mountain and also nearby river. Their house are made from board and bamboo with sago palm roof. Tourists can enjoy long house lifestyle when visit to this place.
Iban tribesman known as Laut Dayak which their long house concept built up with large living room and several bed room. This ethnic most important treasure bravery. Every soldier able to kill enemy, will get appreciation as warrior and greeted with custom dances. Hence, Penan lifestyle is nomad style means that dislike stay in a place with long time. Therefore, their residence size also quite small size. Apart from that, Orang Ulu like to build house scattered in highland and river bank. While Melanau house is the most unique among other Sarawak ethnic, it is because their house is build up 40 feet tall from land, main purpose is to prevent attack by enemy and flood. At the same time, local ethnic dance performance including Ngajat Lesong and Ngajat Pahlawan, ethnic musical performance show in Theater Sarawak Cultural Village start from 11.30 o’clock in the morning to 4.00 o’clock in the afternoon, and every performance take 45 minutes long.
Figure 1.2: Total population with ethnic Sarawak 2005
(Source : Jabatan Penduduk dan Perumahan Malaysia)
1.3 The Important of Conservation and Preservation natural resource and cultural in Malaysia
Tourist industry depends highly on natural resources and cultural diversity which has potential to promote and attract tourist arrival. Natures is one asset that used to attract tourists arrival to see beauty and sense new experience. Awareness on the important of preserve natures in various level (government sector, private sector and society) for establishment of several protected area. Establish Sarawak Cultural Village is one of the approach that used to make sure the place that rich of ecology diversity, biological and cultural heritage preserved and conserve for future generation cause by time pass.
Since Sarawak Cultural Village open visit to tourist in year 1990, cultural village record around 70,000 people visit per year. Tourists get benefit while visit to cultural village including view natures scenic, cultural heritage and handicraft and do various recreation activities and as well as research and learning also. So their entry capable increase economic growth and also Kuching capital development from the return of the cultural village. Indirectly, cultural village establish economic opportunities to society such as job opportunity, income level and others fields. At the same time, tourism growth in Sarawak due to influence development at that area. Therefore society nearby can enjoy high quality of infrastructure and facilities.
1.4 Problem Statement
General know that the beauty of natural scenic and rich of various tradition ethnic play different important role and function. Conservation and retention cultural village concept need improvement but it involves high cost. Therefore, entrepreneur cultural village impose a entrance payment rate around RM60 for adult non Sarawak citizen for the conservation and retention purpose.
According to policy makers especially government, whatever decision on resource utilization require information related cost and benefit. For example, conservation and retention effort, government require information about cost and benefit to make a decision whether feasible or not. So, the issue is the benefit value from conservation and retention could not be valued in finance form. That is, benefit value from the conservation and retention only can estimate in quantitative with using concept Willingness To Pay (WTP). The value of WTP on entrance fees to cultural village typified their willingness pay apart from purpose enjoy recreational facility but also conservation and retention program.
Evaluation conservation and retention program divide to two aspect namely direct use value and indirect use value. Direct use value consists goods and services such as natural scenery and traditional dances of various tribesman. Indirect use value could not be valued in market in fact it more focus on ecology and biology, tribesman residence and recreation protection. Therefore, conservation and retention create indirect use value to human and also natures as well.
To study and estimate WTP value for the purpose of conservation and preservation Sarawak Cultural Village.
To identify those factor influence WTP for the cost of preservation for air quality, scenic view. Tradition building in Sarawak Cultural Village.
To analysis the important of Sarawak Cultural Village to society’s tradition Sarawak.
To develop strategy to ensure that retention bring optimum benefit to society Sarawak.
1.6 Research Scope
Data collection in this study is refer to research design which primary data collected through questionnaire method. Sampling point focus at area Damai Beach, Santubong, area Sarawak Cultural Village. Total respondent in this study around one hundred and will use interview method based on objective study. Respondent category chosen is individual that has worked. Statistical Package for the School Science (SPSS) software will be used to strengthened result of the study by looking relationship among each variables.
1.7 The Important of Research
Since 1984, tourism industry show potential returns to economic growth. Hence, government had develop several plan to improve and expansion tourism industry by set up a ministry especially for cultural tourism able increase this industry by Tourism Development Company to promote and enlarge tourism market, facility improvement has been given for investment in this tourism industry. Investment for accommodation projects such as hotel and motel and infrastructure such as recreation center and other facilities were given pioneer status or tax incentive to government. Indirectly those incentives give growth to the country.
Government recommend village tourism was one of the new effective alternative which this development product is based on the natural resources and custom of different ethnic. Nowadays, various strategies generated by government to promote natural tourism and the unique of custom as a new attraction tourists. Therefore, tourists nowadays more interest with nature tourism, so government play important role in conserve and maintain the quality of the recreation center and nature in Malaysia can bring positive growth and give benefit to society as well. Besides can promote cultural village which rich of natural environment, society indirectly also can get the benefit and impact from this tourism strategy.
From this studies, conservation and retention program were important to environment in Malaysia. Environment stabilization or known as environmental sustainability encourage Malaysia develop more protection area to preserve flora and fauna in a certain park or forest. It is because input from natures is important source to economic. While environmental quality on the other hand is productive asset to society.
1.8 Research Organization
This project paper will divided to five chapters:
Chapter 1 discuss about the important of conservation and preservation of the cultural area in Malaysia. Therefore, this study will issue objective to achieve the conservation study. Apart from that, research scope and methodology also be explained clearly in this chapter.
Chapter 2 is part to increase knowledge in the subject area. Besides that, collection previous studies from others economist researcher as a references to identify information and ideas that relevant to this research.
Chapter 3 focuses on describing the associated methodology in the analysis of the contingent valuation for conservation and retention of the Sarawak Cultural Village. Method that will be used is Contingent Valuation Method (CVM). Furthermore, Statistical Package for the School Science (SPSS) software will be used to strengthened result of the study by looking relationship among each variables. Besides, various test will be run for the independent and dependent variables. Model will be use in this study will be explained clearly in this chapter. Type of data collection in this study is primary data through questionnaire method. Therefore, sampling point focus at area Damai Beach, Santubong, area Sarawak Cultural Village. Total respondent in this study around one hundred and will use interview method based on objective study.
Chapter 4 presents the data analysis result of the study with different test. Every decision will be elaborated clearly and performing in graph form and schedule. Interpretation of result will be stated in this section.
Chapter 5 is the last chapter in this study. This chapter would be summarize the study been discussed and provides information to develop policies and strategies to ensure conservation and retention program on cultural village continuously so that future generation have chance to enjoy the benefit and economic value from this conservation.